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The content of these utterances perceived in the same way. The difference is in the way in which they are expressed.
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The first sentence in this example gives us the information in semantic means. The message is delivered through the meaning of words. This is called propositional mode.
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The second utterance conveys its meaning through an expression and is therefore called expressional mode. Plesionyms, or near synonyms, are words, that are almost synonyms.
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They are distinguished from cognitive synonyms by the fact, that the connotations of the pairs are different and therefore they yield different truth conditions in a given context. These sentences have different truth conditions, though they are referring to the same subject. The difference lies in the pragmatic or interpersonal connotations of the user. In this example it is shown, that it is nearly impossible to distinguish between the two truth conditions. Both sentences are referring to the same thing, but they seem to exclude each other, though it is impossible to tell what the difference in the truth condition may be.
This hints to the assumption that plesionyms rely much more on personal impressions than on actual states of reality. Though there is a difference between the lexemes foggy and misty , this difference exists only in connotation and the speakers expressed attitude.
Other examples point to that observation. I tried to show with this term paper, that the linguistic phenomenon of synonymy is a very vague field.
Different Kinds of Synonymy in Language
The problem we encounter in this field is the development of language which makes the existence of absolute synonyms doubtful. Few significant statements can be made due to the lack of an unambiguous testing ground and the fact that language is arbitrary in its use. Complete synonymy is intuitively a fact, but when trying to find a scientific method to generalize a rule for it, we see ourselves confronted with the problems of searching traits that could make up a pair of synonyms.
The same counts for cognitive synonyms as well. The boundaries between two lexemes are blurred and to find even an intuitive distinction between synonymy and zero synonymy is harder than one would imagine. With plesionyms we have the problem of interpersonal differences when speech is used. If the problem of synonymy is to be solved, the problems of meanings would have to be solved first.
To establish a connection between lexemes such as synonymy, one would truly have to know all the nuances that one words implements in all uses. The question here is not only if the same reference-object is termed or if the lexemes are interchangeable, but a much more subtle one: How are words perceived and why do individuals construct analytical truths that build up these nuances of differences in words. In other words, we would have to know the actual usage of words in all their details. But this is highly impractical because words win their nuances through use and are not used because of their nuances.
Cruse, Alan. Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics. Oxford: University Press. Lyons, John. Language and Linguistics an Introduction. Cambridge: University Press. Germanistik - Neuere Deutsche Literatur. Didaktik - Germanistik. Amerikanistik - Linguistik. Germanistik - Linguistik. Registrieren oder einloggen. Optional: Anmelde-Code. Verbinden mit Facebook. Fordern Sie ein neues Passwort per Email an.
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Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Summary IV. Literature cited I. Introduction I asked several of my friends what they thought synonyms were.
cmitportsmouth.com/3791-the-best.php Problem To begin with, let us take two firm semantic insights. He nearly made me cry. We were eating cereals or, more exactly, oatmeal. I was riding a steed, that is, a gelding. He was beaten to death, that is, life. I was riding a steed or, more exactly, a bike. Another example of cognitive synonymy is: 6a This ice cream tastes good. XY was a terrorist.